Criminal Justice

PART 1

Intermediate sanctions span a large gamut, and can be administered primarily by the judiciary, in probation, in institutions, or in the community. There are many complexities associated with intermediate sanctions. Some challenges include determining who should operate intermediate sanctions, with options including probation, parole, institutional corrections, or new agencies (public and private). Selecting offenders is also a source of challenge, in terms of offense severity and/or offender problems.

Understanding the different complexities of intermediate sanctions is important in order to best utilize this approach to punishment.

In 250-300 words answer the following:

  • Summarize three challenges associated with intermediate sanctions.
  • Predict three impacts that could result from your identified challenges.
  • Propose one solution for managing each identified challenge.
  • Explain the importance of criminal justice professionals understanding intermediate sanction challenges.

If possible, use the American Corrections textbook, Chapter 9.

PLEASE USE THE BULLET/QUESTION ABOVE AS THE TITLE OF THE PARAGRAPH!! THERE ARE 4 BULLETS/QUESTIONS ABOVE, SO THERE SHOULD BE 4 PARAGRAPHS.

PART 2

Certain circumstances must exist for a search to be constitutional. For example, contemporaneous searches must occur at the time as, or very close in time and place to, the arrest. Searches citing exigent circumstances may involve some kind of an emergency that makes getting a search warrant impractical, useless, dangerous, or unnecessary. There is generally a reasonable expectation of privacy that exists when a person exhibits an actual expectation of privacy, and the expectation is one that society is prepared to recognize as reasonable. That aside, the U.S. Supreme Court held in United States v. Place, that there is no search within the meaning of the 4th Amendment if police use narcotics detection dogs to smell closed containers for drugs, as long as police are on the premises legally.

Instructions

Consider that there is no need for a search warrant or for probable cause to conduct dog sniffs.

In 250-300 words answer the following:

  • Express your position on the Court’s decision in United States v. Place, using an additional case to support your opinion.
  • Describe the constitutional requirements that apply, or do not apply, in canine searches.
  • Differentiate between the constitutionality of canine searches versus other searches that require probable cause.

PLEASE USE THE BULLET/QUESTION ABOVE AS THE TITLE OF THE PARAGRAPH!! THERE ARE 3 BULLETS/QUESTIONS ABOVE, SO THERE SHOULD BE 3 PARAGRAPHS.

PART 3

Drug testing elementary and high school students taking part in athletics and other school programs is valid. In the case Vernonia School District 47J v. Acton (1995), the Court upheld random drug testing of high school athletes. In the subsequent case Board of Education of Independent School District No. 92 of Pottawatomie County et al. v. Earls (2002), the Court extended that ruling to middle and high school students participating in any extracurricular activity.

Instructions

Locate a case dealing with random drug testing of elementary or high school students.

In 250-300 words answer the following:

  • Explore the Court’s reasoning that drug testing is a minimal intrusion to students.
  • Assess whether the interests of the government in this line of cases are important enough to override the individual privacy protection.
  • Articulate whether you, as a criminal justice professional, believe these rulings should also extend to college students.

PLEASE USE THE BULLET/QUESTION ABOVE AS THE TITLE OF THE PARAGRAPH!! THERE ARE 3 BULLETS/QUESTIONS ABOVE, SO THERE SHOULD BE 3 PARAGRAPHS.

 
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